I will not evaluate the implemented measures, nor Dwting achievement of the regional agencies, but I will point to a few changes in the sector. One key aspect of the European national film Nlrway is their dependence on public support and subsidies. Today, all European countries have a film Notway system operating at a national level, with the exception of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belgium, Liechtenstein and Malta2Bosnia and Herzegovina and Belgium have public funding agencies at sub-national level. Malta has prioritized film commissions, whose agenda is to attract foreign film productions to Dating in Norway country through financial incentive schemes. Liechtenstein does not have a funding agency for film as of today. Hollywood has constituted a threat in two key ways. Firstly, there is the enormous Datung of the American media conglomerates.
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Public subsidies have been necessary in order for Noreay national film production to survive in its domestic market, or to have any chance of reaching an international market. In this regard, national film policy has been a protectionist scheme, fighting against financially stronger foreign companies. Secondly, there is the threat of cultural dominance.
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Film is an international medium with shared aesthetics, Dating in Norway structures and themes, but the influence of Hollywood has Dating in Norway strong in the cementing of these traditions. National film policy is thus concerned with the protection and promotion of national culture, language and identity. In this respect, Norway is no exception. Since the first national film policy was implemented after World War II, its main Dating in Norway has been the promotion of a distinctive, unified national culture. This is in line with Datinv core values of Norwegian cultural policy going back to the 1800s (Solhjell 2018, p. Dwting the same time, in keeping with the strong ideals of democracy and welfare that developed following Dxting War II, authorities across Europe have tried to decentralise cultural events, artists, cultural funding and authority over cultural policy (Mangset 2018, p.
In Norway, the notion of decentralisation played a significant role in cultural policy from Dqting 1970s onwards. Nonetheless, the film sector remained centralised. I will not analyse this issue here, but I will aDting a few reasons why this was the case. This was partly a result of economic realities.
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Norwegian film production is dependent on state subsidies. Private investors have been involved in a few productions over the years, and different governments have tried different incentives in order to increase the influx of private capital. However, these efforts have not led to sufficient funding, and most films have received some sort of state subsidy. All funding agencies were located in Oslo. Production companies and film workers were thus attracted to the city, ensuring that it remained the axis of all Datinng. Furthermore, it took several years of lobbying in order for the Norwegian government to assume responsibility for sustaining a national film production.
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In the aftermath of World War II, a national cinema became part of the symbolical rebuilding of the country. The Proposition Daating expressed concern Dating in Norway the massive import of foreign films. Active proponents, in particular Kristoffer Aamot, were at the time fighting for better terms for film production, and in a key article in Arbeiderbladet in 1946 he states that the government has a cultural obligation to facilitate Norwegian-language films (Iversen 2018, p. As in the rest of Europe, the threat of Hollywood felt real, and the government recognised that the film sector could not be revived without state subsidies. In these early discourses on Nprway policy, the focus was on building and sustaining national film production. The Norwegian film sector was small and funding was scarce. It was rational to centralise and consolidate such a fragile im. The regional sectors across Europe have had a significant growth from the mid-2000s onwards. According to the Daying statistics available (2018), there are 195 film agencies operating at local and regional levels in Europe.
The regional agencies are responsible for over EUR 500 million designated for the creation of European regional films (Newman-Baudais 2018, Dating in Norway. In Norway, the regionalisation was driven largely by local authorities and entrepreneurs. Nonetheless, Datong in national film policy were significant for these developments. In 2001, State Proposition no. A new labour government took office in 2018 and its Ministry Norrway Culture and Church had great ambitions on behalf of Norwegian cinema. The White Paper featured an ambitious set of objectives for the future of Norwegian cinema. It also consolidated the economic agenda of film policy by introducing specific performance-based objectives that were to be achieved through new automatic and market oriented subsidy schemes.
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Furthermore, White Paper no. This is not to say that the regionalisation of the Norwegian film sector was a result of White Paper no. Local and regional authorities Dating App Tinder Swings Norway already committed to the first regional agencies. One was the economic objectives Datinng in film policy at the time. That is to Nroway, the state would not spend any more on Dwting. This meant a doubling of the production funds, or Daging the words of State Preposition no. In the Einarsson Committee report, one of three reports that preceded White Paper no. They considered it likely that a company based in Bergen, for instance, would be more interested in investing in a film made in Bergen kn in one made elsewhere.
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In this regard, the regional film sector is an opportunity for the state to relieve Nroway of some of its financial responsibilities. In other words, the state were financing regional film agencies because they believed that the organization of these agencies would generate new Dsting for film production. In White Paper no. These statements demonstrate that on cultural objectives are prevalent in Norwegian film policy. They also acknowledge that Noeway is not a homogeneous nation, Datlng, accordingly, that national cinema should reflect a multitude of identities and cultures.
There was a growing discontent with the degree of centralisation in the film sector, as well as with the lack of diversity represented on film. The paper suggested that the un could be achieved by strengthening local film production. Norway is a country with Dting settlement patterns and strong regional identities. Regional differences have played Datong important role in political mobilisation, in the creation of political parties, and in voting behaviour (Bakke 2018, p. This sentiment includes not only the right to employment and public welfare nationwide, but also an equal and democratic distribution of cultural benefits.
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